**3.3.1 UNSIGNED MULTIPLICATION**

Multiplication of unsigned binary integers is handled similar to the way it is carried out by hand for decimal numbers. Figure 3-10 illustrates the multiplication process for two unsigned binary integers. Each bit of the multiplier determines whether or not the multiplicand, shifted left according to the position of the multiplier bit, is added into the product. When two unsigned n-bit numbers are

multiplied, the result can be as large as 2n bits. For the example shown in Figure 3-10, the multiplication of two four-bit operands results in an eight-bit product.

*Figure 3-10 Multiplication of two unsigned binary integers.*

A hardware implementation of integer multiplication can take a similar form to the manual method. Figure 3-11 shows a layout of a multiplication unit for four-bit numbers, in which there is a four-bit adder, a control unit, three four-bit registers, and a one-bit carry register.

*Figure 3-11 A serial multiplier.*

In order to multiply two numbers, the multiplicand is placed in the M register, the multiplier is placed in the Q register, and the A and C registers are cleared to zero. During multiplication, the rightmost bit of the multiplier determines whether the multiplicand is added into the product at each step. After the multiplicand is added into the product, the multiplier and the A register are simultaneously shifted to the right. This has the effect of shifting the multiplicand to the left (as for the manual process) and exposing the next bit of the multiplier in position q0.

Figure 3-12 illustrates the multiplication process. Initially, C and A are cleared, and M and Q hold the multiplicand and multiplier, respectively.

*Figure 3-12 An example of multiplication using the serial multiplier.*

The rightmost bit of Q is 1, and so the multiplier M is added into the product in the A register. The A and Q registers together make up the eight-bit product, but the A register is where the multiplicand is added. After M is added to A, the A and Q registers are shifted to the right. Since the A and Q registers are linked as a pair to form the eight-bit product, the rightmost bit of A is shifted into the leftmost bit of Q.

The rightmost bit of Q is then dropped, C is shifted into the leftmost bit of A, and a 0 is shifted into C.

The process continues for as many steps as there are bits in the multiplier. On the second iteration, the rightmost bit of Q is again 1, and so the multiplicand is added to A and the C/A/Q combination is shifted to the right. On the third iteration, the rightmost bit of Q is 0 so M is not added to A, but the C/A/Q combination is still shifted to the right. Finally, on the fourth iteration, the rightmost bit of Q is again 1, and so M is added to A and the C/A/Q combination is shifted to the right. The product is now contained in the A and Q registers, in which A holds the high-order bits and Q holds the low-order bits.

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