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Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Computer Architecture # 02 : Data Representation : Introduction (1)

2.1 Introduction
In the early days of computing, there were common misconceptions about computers. One misconception was that the computer was only a giant adding machine performing arithmetic operations. Computers could do much more than that, even in the early days. The other common misconception, in contradiction to the first, was that the computer could do “anything.” We now know that there are indeed classes of problems that even the most powerful imaginable computer finds intractable with the von Neumann model. The correct perception, of course, is somewhere between the two.
We are familiar with computer operations that are non-arithmetic: computer graphics, digital audio, even the manipulation of the computer mouse. Regardless of what kind of information is being manipulated by the computer, the information must be represented by patterns of 1’s and 0’s (also known as “on-off ” codes).

Friday, February 18, 2011

Computer Architecture # 01 : Introduction

1.1 Overview
Computer architecture deals with the functional behavior of a computer system as viewed by a programmer. This view includes aspects such as the sizes of data types (e.g. using 16 binary digits to represent an integer), and the types of operations that are supported (like addition, subtraction, and subroutine calls). Computer organization deals with structural relationships that are not visible to the programmer, such as interfaces to peripheral devices, the clock frequency, and the technology used for the memory. This textbook deals with both architecture and organization, with the term “architecture” referring broadly to both architecture and organization.
There is a concept of levels in computer architecture. The basic idea is that there are many levels, or views, at which a computer can be considered, from the highest level, where the user is running programs, or using the computer, to the lowest level, consisting of transistors and wires.

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #17: Disable Automatic Windows Defender Operation

Windows Defender real-time protection against malware continues to run despite having Automatic operation disabled.

In actuality, this built-in malware protector from Microsoft is very poor at protecting your computer from external threats.  You are much better off using a 3rd-party software program like XoftSpy for total protection (see Vista Speed Secret #9 for more information).
To disable:
1.  Click the Start button
2.  Type “services” into the Start Search box
3.  Find Windows Defender in the list of programs
4.  Double-click on Windows Defender
5.  Choose Tools from the top menu

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #21: Shut-Off Windows Hibernation

Windows hibernation background services use a very large amount of system resources. If you are like most people you don’t use the Hibernate feature very much so you may want to disable it to give Vista a performance boost.

To shut down Hibernation:
1. Click the Start button
2.  Select Control Panel
3. Click the Classic View on the left hand side
4.  Double-click on Power Options
5.  Select Change Plan Settings
6. Choose Change Advanced Power Settings

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #20: Shutdown Remote Differential Compression

Remote Differential Compression checks the changes of your files over a network to move them with as little bandwidth as possible instead of transferring an entire file that has previously been moved.
Obiviously, the average home PC user has NO need for this service.  With it constantly checking for file changes, this service will greatly slow system performance.

To shut down this service:

1. Click the Start button
2.  Select Control Panel
3. Click Classic View on the left side of the window
4.  Double-click on Programs and Features
5. Click Turn Windows Features On And Off on the left side of the window

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #18: Turn-Off Un-Needed Features

There are many new features in Windows Vista that are installed by default that you may not need. These extra and un-needed features can slow down your computer and take up more storage space.
Windows Features can be un-installed using the Windows Features utility. Follow these steps to uninstall applications such as the Windows Fax and Scan and many more.
To Turn-Off Some Un-Needed Features:
1. Click on the Start Button
2.  Select Control Panel
3. Under Programs click Uninstall a program
4. On the left side menu, click on Turn Windows features on or off
5.  Scroll through the list as shown below and uncheck from any feature you do not want installed.

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #19: Disable Unused Services

Services are background processes which keep running waiting for a response, so if you don’t use the application it still runs and slows PC speed.
The average user doesn’t need many running.
1. Click the Start button
2.  Type msconfig in the Start Search box, hit enter
3. Click the Services tab
4. Uncheck the unneeded startup items (examples below)

Desktop Window Manager Session Manager - Provides Desktop Window Manager startup and maintenance services. Uncheck to disable.

Diagnostic Policy Service - Enables problem detection, troubleshooting and resolution for Windows components. Uncheck to disable.

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #16: Clean Your System Registry

Of course, the fastest and easiest way to speed-up your computer is to allow a software program to do it for you! Although you will find that all of the adjustments in this book will speed up your system, the most effective and easiest way to give your computer blazing speed is to clean up your system’s Registry.

Your computer is like your car: it needs periodic maintenance to keep it running at optimum performance.  Installing and un-installing programs, surfing the Internet, emailing, and other everyday activities create a sort of “sludge” that builds up in your computer over time, much like an automobile engine.

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #15: Disable Automatic Disk Defragment

Windows Vista uses an always-on defragment set up that isn’t that necessary and will cause your system to slow down. Remember to run a defragment manually once a month.

Windows Vista/Seven Speed Secret #14: Shutdown Search Indexing

Windows Vista Search Indexing is constantly checking the files on your system to make their information available for quick searching. This is helpful, but can severely slow system performance as the average user doesn’t use the search function frequently.

Thursday, February 10, 2011


  > Versus <   
Dear All !
The top spots in mid-level video editing are held by Apple and Adobe, and many people are looking for a specific comparison between Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro (FCP).
FCP tends to be more popular amongst professional editors, although this can also be attributed to the popularity of Mac vs Windows in the same market. It is often said that FCP is more stable and/or faster than Premiere, but this is more a reflection on the operating system than the software. Having said this, in my experience Premiere is very stable on a well-configured Windows system.

Sunday, February 6, 2011

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 19: Storage media

The digital images you capture can be stored on the camera memory cards or on your computer hard disc.
Once you begin building-up a library of digital images, and you want to be able to take them to bureaux or other computers, then removable storage media is required.

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 17: Building up a composite image

Ever wondered how the advertisers get shots of vehicles driving up the sides of skyscrapers, or athletes running across the oceans?
In the example below, we shall “cut out” the horse and paste him into the bottom right corner of the mountain picture.

Saturday, February 5, 2011

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 16: Using special effects filters

1. Choose the filter required from the Filter menu;
2. Choose from any options displayed in a subsequent window;
3. Click the OK button.
Below, the girl’s face has been distorted by using the Distort (Pinch) filter;

Friday, February 4, 2011

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 15: Adding text

  1. Set the foreground to the required colour for the text. (Click the Foreground square in the toolbox and select a new colour).
  2. Select the type tool (see right) from the toolbox;
  3. Click on the part of the image where the word is to be inserted;

Thursday, February 3, 2011

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 14 Adjusting colours and contrast

The brightness and contrast, amount of true whites and blacks in an image, can be altered in several ways.
• The Adjustments > Brightness/Contrast panel from the Image menu.  This gives blanket results across the entire image. For finer control, use one of the two methods below.
• Levels
Choose Adjust ments > Levels from the Image menu.

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 13: Adjusting a selection or layer’s opacitys

1. In the Layers palette, select the layer whih you wish to make opaque.
2. Slide the Opacity slider to a new position to chage that layer’s opacity.
3. Drag the image by its title bar to one side of the screen;. Choose New View Les

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 12: Rotating a selection

      1. Make a selection using the Marquee tool.If you rotate this selection, blank space(grey and white pixels) will appear in thegaps left behind.So you may want to copy the selection either to a new layer (Copy, Paste) or copy it within the existing layer (alt/opt and command keys and drag selection) first, so that rotating it reveals the original background rather than empty space.
      2. Choose Transform > Rotate from the Edit menu. Handles will appear at the corners of the selected area;
      3. Position the pointer on a handle;
      4. Drag the pointer either clockwise or anti-clockwise before releasing. The image will rotate.

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 11: Moving and duplicating selections

Cutting the selection for use elsewhere
1. Choose Cut from the Edit menu.. This leaves the area empty (indicated by grey and white pixels).
Copying the selection for use elsewhere
1. Choose Copy from the Edit menu.

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 10: Making simple selections

Photoshop enables selections of elliptical, rectangular and freehand shapes to be chosen. These selections can then be cut, copied, duplicated, erased, rotated, moved or pasted elsewhere. They can also have their opacity and other attributes changed.

Photoshop Tutorials : Lesson # 9: Duplicating irregular shaped elements

Because the rubber stamp tool picks up whatever areas it runs over, you can also use it to duplicate irregularly shaped elements in a document. Regular (square or round) objects can be selected with the selection tools

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