**2.2.7 BINARY CODED DECIMAL**

Numbers can be represented in the base 10 number system while still using a binary encoding. Each base 10 digit occupies four bit positions, which is known as binary coded decimal (BCD). Each BCD digit can take on any of 10 values. There are 24 = 16 possible bit patterns for each base 10 digit, and as a result, six bit patterns are unused for each digit. In Figure 2-6, there are four decimal significant digits, so 104 = 10,000 bit patterns are valid, even though 216 = 65,536 bit patterns are possible with 16 bits.

Figure 2-6 BCD representations of 301 (a) and –301 in nine’s complement (b) and ten’s comple-

ment (c).

Although some bit patterns are unused, the BCD format is commonly used in calculators and in business applications. There are fewer problems in representing terminating base 10 fractions in this format, unlike the base 2 representation. There is no need to convert data that is given at the input in base 10 form (as in a calculator) into an internal base 2 representation, or to convert from an internal representation of base 2 to an output form of base 10.

Performing arithmetic on signed BCD numbers may not be obvious. Although we are accustomed to using a signed magnitude representation in base 10, a different method of representing signed base 10 numbers is used in a computer. In the nine’s complement number system, positive numbers are represented as in ordinary BCD, but the leftmost digit is less than 5 for positive numbers and is 5 or greater for negative numbers. The nine’s complement negative is formed by subtracting each digit from 9. For example, the base 10 number +301 is represented as 0301 (or simply 301) in both nine’s and ten’s complement as shown in Figure 2-6a. The nine’s complement negative is 9698 (Figure 2-6b), which is obtained by subtracting each digit in 0301 from 9.

The ten’s complement negative is formed by adding 1 to the nine’s complement negative, so the ten’s complement representation of −301 is then 9698 + 1 = 9699 as shown in Figure 2-6c. For this example, the positive numbers range from 0 – 4999 and the negative numbers range from 5000 to 9999.

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